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The use of highly acidic agricultural additives began in the middle of the 1800s when Justice von Liebig discovered that plants would grow with nitrogen, phosphate, and potassium fertilizer (NPK fertilizer). Liebig believed that nitrogen could be supplied to plant roots in the form of ammonia, and recognized the possibility of substituting chemical fertilizers for natural (animal dung, etc.) ones. He was said to have originated the absurd theory that NPK provides all needed minerals. However, in the 11th edition of Encyclopedia Britannica, Liebig recanted the theory and admitted its total falsity.

Later editions of the encyclopedia, however, omitted that recantation. Submitting to pressure from chemical and fertilizer manufacturers, editors decided to omit rather than risk the encyclopedia’s existence through possible loss of future gifts. And so Liebig’s unfortunate early recommendations continue to be practiced in agriculture and horticulture worldwide.

NPK fertilizer kills the microbes in the soil (it knocks out the nitrogen cycle). Without a complete nitrogen cycle plants cannot produce and uptake fulvic and humic acids. Fulvic acid is, in essence, the principal active ingredient in humic acid. Fulvic acid converts inorganic minerals into organic minerals; our bodies and brains requie 84 organic minerals that plants have transformed from the inorganic minerals in the soil into negatively charged ionic or bioelectrical forms of building blocks. Only living land plants have the power to extract inorganic minerals from earth and convert them to organic minerals. Vitamins without organic minerals are of little value and quickly eliminated from the body, and every chemical reaction that takes place in the body requires enzymes, and enzyme activity is dependent upon organic minerals.

Humic acid is nature’s most powerful anti-viral. Along with its anti-viral benefit, humic acid promotes human health in a variety of ways; it makes cell membranes more permeable, so nutrients can more easily enter the cell, as well as allowing waste to leave the cells more readily; it improves enzymatic reactions in cells, increases absorption of oxygen, and decreases metabolic acids.

Fulvic and humic acids have a micro porous structure. These acids are thus capable of forming complexes with nonpolar solutes and certain drug molecules with low bioavailability; these molecules can be entrapped in the void so as to increase their solubility and dissolution rate, thereby enhancing their bioavailability (Ghosal, 2003; Khanna, 2006). It enhances the properties of other herbs (Dash 1991). It also acts as a catalytic agent for promoting the action of the other tonic agents (Frawley 2001).

Humic and fulvic acids are powerful organic electrolytes and contain potent antioxidants called polyphenols. An electrolyte is a substance, soluble in water and other mediums, which is capable of conducting bioelectrical current. Antioxidants eradicate free radicals. Without fulvic and humic acids excess free radicals are free to circulate throughout the body; they injure tissue and make cells susceptible to infections, diseases, and/or cancer causing mutations. Humic and fulvic acid also have the ability to complex and remove pesticides, radioactive elements, heavy metals (inorganic minerals), and other pollutants from our body by binding to these substances and flushing them out of the body, if unable to convert them.

Obviously, by killing the microbes in the soil people and plants no longer have natural defenses against disease.

The highly acidic NPK fertilizer kills the microbes in the soil; it knocked out the nitrogen cycle. Once the soil became acidic, the naive farmers were instructed to use agricultural lime (calcium hydroxide) in order to alkalize the acidic soil. The crops now up-take inorganic calcium, phosphate, nitrogen, and potassium. We never came in contact with isolated inorganic minerals in nature. The food we ate contained optimal and relative amounts of organic plant based minerals and the water we drank contained electrolyte salts. The fish, sea vegetables, and sea salt we consumed contain optimal and relative amounts of natural occurring inorganic minerals.

Mineral aberrations cause biochemical, structural, and functional pathologies. Inorganic calcium antagonizes the assimilation and utilization of boron, iron, and manganese. Nitrogen impairs the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity.

Phosphates have a damaging effect on calcium metabolism. Scientists have discovered over many years of investigation in human beings (and domestic animals) that a single meal with a phosphate supplement could stimulate the parathyroid gland, which removed calcium from the bones of young healthy people.

Inorganic phosphorus causes the body to send calcium from the bones to the blood in an attempt to restore balance. This transfer of calcium weakens bones, and can cause calcification of muscles, internal organs, and calcium being deposited in inappropriate forms, such as kidney stones. It raises the risk of heart attack and other vascular diseases. Elevated serum phosphate levels are highly correlated with calcification.

Calcium disorders include bone metabolism disorders (osteoporosis), accumulation of fluid in tissue (edema), irritability of the nervous system, and allergies. Brain activity is also affected.

Phosphates cause severe disturbances in potassium and magnesium metabolism. Muscle activity, especially that of the heart, is impaired by these disturbances. Scientists have succeeded in inducing the full range of heart muscle disorders with phosphate – from simple fibrosis and a suppurative inflammation of the heart muscles to cardiac arrest. Phosphates bind to magnesium, which depletes magnesium reserves.

Inorganic calcium and potassium antagonize organic magnesium and the electrolyte salt magnesium bicarbonate. Magnesium is a critical co-factor in more than 300 enzymatic reactions in the human body. Magnesium deficiency can affect virtually every organ system of the body. Even a mild deficiency causes sensitivity to noise, nervousness, irritability, mental depression, confusion, twitching, trembling, apprehension, insomnia, muscle weakness, and muscle cramps. When magnesium is insufficient, calcium is deposited in the soft tissues (kidneys, arteries, joints, brain, etc.). Magnesium helps us excrete heavy metals and other toxins. The magnesium molecule binds to a heavy metal molecule to negate the damaging oxidative effect of heavy metal. The body will then excrete the metal along with the magnesium. Therefore, people with high levels of heavy metals (inorganic minerals) also excrete high levels of magnesium (further depleting magnesium reserves).

Magnesium gives us energy, prevents bone loss and osteoporosis, helps balance our hormones and sugar metabolism. It prevents blood clot formation and muscle spasms of the heart blood vessels, which can lead to heart attack. One major cause of angina is spasming of the heart’s coronary arteries that are lined with smooth muscles that react to a deficiency of magnesium. It prevents muscle spasms of the peripheral blood vessels, which can lead to high blood pressure, another risk factor of heart disease. Magnesium prevents calcium buildup in cholesterol plaque in arteries, which clogs arteries. Magnesium is a natural statin (anti-cholesterol medication). It is necessary for the activity of an enzyme that lowers bad cholesterol (LDL) and triglycerides and raises good cholesterol (HDL).

To reduce such a vast biological complexity to NPK represented the scientific method at its reductionist worst; complex qualities were reduced to simple quantities. The NPK mentality embraces a good deal more than fertilizer, however. Indeed, we begin to wonder, if it might not be one of the keys to everything wrong with modern civilization.

Current farming methods, particularly the excessive use of organic NPK, synthetic NPK, agrochemicals, and acid rain cause mineral aberrations and deficiencies, both in the soil and in the crop it yields. If our foods do not contain optimal and relative quantities of organic plant based minerals we simply starve to death (unless we supplement).

Most knowledgeable people today recognize that the body must have 84 organic plant based minerals to accomplish its work and preserve its health. However, only a few realize that these minerals must be in their organic state to be properly assimilated and utilized.

The idea of administering inorganic minerals as supplements for humans started in the early twentieth century. Today hundreds of manmade mineral supplements exist in many forms and come from many sources. Minerals must be consumed in their natural, un-fragmented, and organic state to be of any benefit to the body.

  • Only a land plant can transform inorganic minerals into organic minerals.
  • Animals must eat plants or plant-eating animals to obtain their organic minerals.
  • Inorganic mineral supplements are injurious to the animal organism because they are: 1) inorganic and 2) fragmented.

The body cells were designed to use spring water that contains electrolyte salts and/or organic mineral water that was once found in fruits, vegetables, meats, and dairy products. However, thanks to the acid rain, chlorine, fluoride, dead soil, NPK fertilizer, pesticides, etc. our produce, meat, and dairy products are now loaded with toxic water, chemicals, and inorganic minerals.

When inorganic minerals are ingested (in food and/or water) a condition known as leukocytosis occurs within the body in thirty minutes to three hours after consuming them. Leukocytosis (a proliferation of white blood cells) is the body’s first line of defense against foreign and harmful body substances—in this case, the inorganic minerals. Water should contain bicarbonate salts, not hard water loaded with inorganic minerals.

Minerals do not work in isolation. When they are extracted from their natural sources, the other co-existing vitamins, minerals, enzymes, etc., are not also extracted. Even if they were, the process of laboratory extraction destroys any vital benefits that may have been associated with the minerals.

“The first thing that is destroyed in the laboratory when a nutrient is isolated from a food, is the delicate web of intelligence that binds the components of food together.” Deepak Chopra


Shilajit is a truly remarkable substance with a long history of human usage for healing. It is the very best mineral supplement that we have found. It has 84 organic plant based minerals, trace minerals, and ultra trace minerals; it also has fulvic, humic, and ulmic acids at optimal and relative amounts. It is considered one of the most important substances in the Indian system of Ayurveda medicine. In India, it is believed that there is almost no curable disease that cannot be assisted with the consumption of Shilajit.


The general appearance of shilajit is that of a compact mass of vegetable organic matter composed of a dark red gummy matrix interspersed with vegetable fibers, sand and earthy matter. The gummy substance dissolves in water and when washed away leaves an earthy matter, vegetable fibers and a few black round button-like masses (1/8 in. in diameter) resembling peas (Chopra 1958).

Chemical analysis shows that it contains besides gums, albuminoids, traces of resin and fatty acid, a large quantity of benzoic and hippuric acids and their salts. From the medicinal point of view, the chief active substances in it are benzoic acid and benzoates (Chopra 1958).

A study of vegetation of the areas of shilajit-exuding rocks indicated that Euphorbia royleana Boiss. (family Eurporbiaceae), a latex-bearing plant abundantly growing in the Western Himalayas, is the source of organic constituents of shilajit. The major amino acid composition in the latex of E. royleana was similar to that of shilajit (Ghosal 1976). E. royleana, a member of the cactus family, is commonly known as churee.

Trifolium repens L. (family Leguminosae) has also been found growing abundantly in the vicinity of shilajit-bearing rocks and are responsible, at least in part, for the formation of shilajit (Ghosal 1987). Trifolium repens is commonly known as white clover.

Shilajit has long been regarded as a bitumen (asphalt) or mineral resin, or as a plant fossil exposed by elevation of the Himalayas, has now been subjected to extensive chemical investigations and it has now been shown to contain significant quantities of organic compounds, including bioactive oxygenated dibeno-alpha-pyrones, tirucallane triterpenes, phenolic lipids and small tannoids.

Shilajit is essentially constituted of fresh and modified remnants of humus (10-70% of the water-soluble fraction of shilajit), admixed with plant and microbial metabolites occurring in the rock rhizosphere of its natural habitat. (Mukherjee 1992).


Himalayan tribal villagers, who were observing white monkeys migrating to the higher mountains in summer months, made the discovery of Shilajit. The monkeys were observed to lick the semi-solid substance exuding out of the rock crevices.

Since observing animal behaviors were an important part of healthcare research in ancient times, those villagers attributed the great strength and longevity of those monkeys to this substance. Curious by the thought, they themselves started taking the substance and reported a broad spectrum of improvement in their health and stamina. It gave them more energy, relieved digestive problems, increased sex drive, improved memory, etc. (Dabur 2003).


The Caraka states that Shilajit enables the user to witness a hundred summers on earth, free from disease and decay. It is said that 7.75 lbs. (3.5 kilos) of Shilajit taken successively, adds a century to the duration of the human life, while 77.5 lbs. (35 kilos) are said to extend lifetime in increments of a century up to one thousand years. (Bhishagratna 1998).


This is a brief description of what Shilajit is said to help with. Do further research for yourself: “these following statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. Shilajit is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.”

Shilajit is known as a very potent antioxidant that helps fight free radicals and oxidation of the body’s cells. For this reason, it is thought to promote longevity.

It is said that Shilajit can be used to reduce pain and treat inflammation. Many people consume it to treat arthritis, joint, and muscle pain. Although some use Shilajit to obtain relief from kidney stones, use caution if the stones are made of uric acid or if uric acid crystals are in the urine as uric acid increases with the administration of Shilajit. For this same reason, Shilajit is contraindicated for those suffering from metabolic acidosis, gouty arthritis or gout.

Shilajit is used to strengthen the nervous system and help with stress, mental fatigue, epilepsy, anxiety, and depression. It is also thought to promote better concentration, increased learning ability, and enhance memory.

It’s used to treat heart related ailments and maintain normal blood pressure. Shilajit can be beneficial to the digestive system, stomach, and intestines. It can relieve indigestion, gastritis, constipation, and pain in the abdomen.

It is thought to protect and enhance the workings of the kidneys, pancreas, and thyroid gland as well as increase blood circulation.

Shilajit is considered by some to be a protector of the liver, as it maintains proper secretion of enzymes and juices that are essential to healthy metabolism. Any antimicrobial activity protects the body.

It has been used as a strong immune system booster that protects the body from many types of illnesses, diseases, and infections, and has been used to treat many respiratory problems, like cough and asthma. Shilajit can have antihistamine effects and so can be used for allergy symptom relief.

Shilajit can increase physical strength, energy and stamina, making it great for hard working people and athletes. It is said to increase sperm count in men and regulate sex hormones; thus it is thought to be a sexual enhancer.

Many people with diabetes consume Shilajit, as it seems to help metabolize blood glucose and remove harmful toxins from the body as well as fight new toxin buildup.


One suggested dosage is to take Shilajit powder with milk, 1 oz. or more a day for severe conditions; 0.25 – 1 tsp. three times per day otherwise (Tirtha 1998). (Note: in our opinion, our current condition is beyond severe, almost everyone on the planet has been completely demineralized of necessary organic plant based minerals).

Shilajit is used for edema, particularly in weak types, 1-2 grams twice a day with water or milk. For diabetes sufferers it has been recommended in much higher doses such as 1 g twice per day. Shilajit mixes well with Ashwagandha for seminal debility and with gokshura as a urinary tonic. For the treatment of both male and female infertility, it can be taken in higher doses of 1 tsp twice per day. For men combine with Ashwagandha and for women with Shatavari.

Consider Shilajit in all urinary disorders. Shilajit is considered by some to be among the best herbs for the long-term management of diabetes mellitus where it should be combined with royal jelly, bee pollen, honey, and propolis.


  • As a powerful immune system booster
  • Treat diabetes
  • Treat respiratory conditions
  • Treat coughs
  • Sexual enhancer
  • Potent vitamin and mineral source
  • For longevity
  • For anti-aging
  • As an energy booster
  • As an adaptogen
  • Treat arthritis and joint pain
  • Reduce inflammation
  • Aid memory and thinking
  • Reduce stress
  • Reduce physical and mental fatigue
  • Treat anxiety and depression
  • For better powers of concentration
  • Maintain heart health
  • Treat high blood pressure
  • Improve digestion
  • Treat gastritis, constipation and indigestion
  • Protect the liver and pancreas
  • Increase blood circulation
  • Protect and maintain the thyroid gland
  • Increase metabolism
  • For proper enzyme secretion
  • For it’s anti-microbial properties
  • Increase physical strength and endurance
  • Treat premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction
  • Treat urinary problems and kidney stones
  • To detoxify the body and remove toxins
  • Treat anemia
  • Treat ulcers
  • Increase natural growth hormone production

This is a list of suggested usage from referenced sources.



Päìòutä (anemia) (Dash 1991).

Rakta (vitiation of blood) (Dash 1991).

Reduces blood sugar (Tierra 1988).


Parasitic diseases of the skin (Chopra 1958).

Skin diseases (Frawley 2001).

Leprosy (Chopra 1958).

Endocrinology, reproductive system, obstetrics/gynecology, prostate

Sexual debility (Frawley 1989) (Frawley 2001).

Sexual vitality (Puri 2003).

Infertility (Tierra 1988).

Menstrual disorders(Frawley 2001).

Post partum health (Puri 2003).

Thyroid disfunction (Lad 2002).


Digestive troubles (Chopra 1958).

Chardi (vomiting) (Dash 1991).

Arças (piles or hemorrhoids ) (Dash 1991) (Frawley 2001).

Krimi (parasitic infestation) (Dash 1991) (Frawley 2001).

Hematology, lymphatic, cancer

Edema (dropsy) (Chopra 1958) (Frawley 1989) (Frawley 2001).

Spleen enlargement (Halpern 2003).

Cancer (Frawley 1989).

Immunology, AIDS, infectious diseases

Weakness (Frawley 2001).

Debility (Frawley 2001).

Kñaya (comsumption) (Dash 1991) (Tierra 1988).

Immunomodulater (Puri 2003).

AIDS (Frawley 1989).

Liver and Gallbladder

Jaundice (Frawley 2001).

Gall stones (Frawley 2001).

Udara (obstinate abdominal diseases including ascites) (Dash 1991).

Neurology, psychiatry

Nervous diseases (Chopra 1958).

Antistress (Frawley 1989)(Puri 2003).

Epilepsy (Frawley 2001).

Unmade (insanity) (Dash 1991) (Frawley 2001).

Respiratory (lower and upper respiratory tract including ears, nose, throat, sinuses)

Çväsa (dyspnoea) (Dash 1991).

Chronic bronchitis (Chopra 1958).

Asthma (Chopra 1958) (Frawley 2001).

Mouth diseases (Dash 1991).

Rheumatological, orthopedic, muscles, contusions

Obesity (Frawley 1989)(Frawley 2001).

Fractures (Chopra 1958) (Tierra 1988) (Puri 2003).

Arthritis (Halpern 2003-2)

Osteoarthritis (Tierra 1988).

Spondylosis (Tierra 1988).

Bodybuilding (Muscular hypertrophy) (Bucci 2000)

Urinary tract system (kidney, ureter, bladder)

Pameha (obstinate urinary disorders including diabetes) (Dash 1991) (Frawley 1989).

Seeta meha (renal glycosuria, a type of Kapha diabetes) (Qutab 1996)

Sikata meha (Lithuria, a type of Kapha diabetes) (Qutab 1996)

Shanai meha (Frequent urination caused by a stone in prostate area) (Qutab 1996)

Shukara meha (spermoruia) (Qutab 1996)

Diabetes (Frawley 1989)(Frawley 2001).

Kidney stones (renal calculi) (Chopra 1958) (Frawley 2001).

Cystitis (Frawley 2001).

Dysuria (Frawley 1989)(Frawley 2001).

Chronic urinary tract problems (Tierra 1988).

Urinary tract infections (Frawley 1989).

Urinary Tonic (Halpern 2003).

Kidney Tonic (Frawley 1989)(Frawley 2001).

Other Uses

Yogavähi, which means that it enhances the properties of other herbs (Dash 1991). It acts as a catalytic agent for promoting the action of the other tonic agents.

Geriatric tonic (Frawley 1989) (Puri 2003).

Tonic (Vata and Kapha) (Frawley 2001).

Rejuvenative (Frawley 2001).

Tissues and Systems

Shilajit affects the nerve and reproductive tissues and the urinary, nervous and reproductive systems (Frawley 2001). It also has specific action on the endocrine system and affects all tissue systems. It also strengthens agni (digestive fire) and reduces ama (toxins) (Halpern 2003).


Herbal actions are alterative, diuretic, lithotroptic, antiseptic, tonic, and rejuvenative. Other actions include anodyne, anthelmintic and blood sugar reducer. It also has a laxative effect and has absorbing and purifying properties.

“These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.”


There is a wealth of scientific evidence available for the efficacy of Shilajit:

Shilajit, A Materia Medica Monograph, Robert Talbert, 2004

Acharya SB, Frotan MH, Goel RK, Tripathi SK, Das PK. Pharmacological actions of Shilajit. Indian J Exp Biol. 1988 Oct; 26(10): 775-7.

Agarwal, S.P., Khanna, R., Karmarkar, R., Anwer, M.K., Khar, R.K., 2007. Shilajit: a review. Phytotherapy Research 21, 401–405.

Agarwal, S.P., Anwer, M.K., Aqil, M., 2008a. Complexation of furosemide with fulvic acid extracted from Shilajit: a novel approach. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 34, 506–511.

Agarwal, S.P., Khanna, R., Karmarkar, R., Anwer, M.K., Khar, R.K., 2008b. Physicochemical, spectral and thermal characterization of Shilajit, a humic substance with medicinal properties. Asian Journal of Chemistry 20, 209–217.

Bhishagratna KK. Susruta Samhita Vol 2, Chapter XIII. Varanasi, India: Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, Varansi-1, 1998.

Bucci LR. Selected herbals and human exercise performance. American Society for Clinical Nutrition, 2000 Aug; 72(2 Suppl): 624S-36S.

Chen, Y., Senesi, N., Schnitzer, M., 1977. Information provided on humic substances by E4/E6 ratios. Soil Science Society of America Journal 41,352–358.

Chopra, R.A., Chopra, I.C., Handa, K.L., 1958. Indigenous Drugs of India. U.N. Dhar and Sons, Calcutta. pp. 457–461.

Christl, I., Knicker, H., Kogel-Knabner, I., Kretzschmar, R., 2000. Chemical heterogeneity of humic substances: characterization of size fractions obtained by hollow-fibre ultrafiltration. European Journal of Soil Science 51, 617–625.

Dittmar, T., Koch, B.P., Hertkorn, N., Kattner, G., 2008. A simple and efficient method for the solid-phase extraction of dissolved organic matter (SPE-DOM) from seawater. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 6, 230–235.

Einsiedl, F., Hertkorn, N., Wolf, M., Frommberger, M., Schmitt-Kopplin, P., Koch, B.P., 2007.

Rapid biotic molecular transformation of fulvic acids in a karst aquifer. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 71, 5474–5482.

Frotan, M.H., and Acharya, S.B. Pharmacological studies of shilajit. Indian Journal of Pharmacolgy 1984 16,45.

Ghosal, S., 1989. Shilajit.6. The facets and facts of Shilajit. In: Vohara, S.B., Dandiya, P.C. (Eds.), Research and Development of Indigenous Drugs. Institute of History of Medicine and Medical Research, New Delhi, pp.72–80.

Ghosal S, Lal J, Singh SK, Goel RK, Jaiswal AK, Bhattacharya SK. The need for formulation of Shilajit by its isolated active constituents. Phytotherapy Res 1991; 5:211-6.

Ghosal, S., 1990. Chemistry of Shilajit, an immunomodulatory rasayan. Pure and Applied Chemistry 62, 1285–1288.

Ghosal, S., 1992. Shilalit: its origin and significance. Indian Journal of Indigenous Medicine 9, 1–4.

Ghosal S, Reddy JP, Lal VK. Shilajit I: chemical constituents. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 1976 May; 65(5): 772-3.

Ghosal S, Singh SK, Kumar Y, Srivatsava R. Antiulcerogenic activity of fulvic acids and 4-metoxy-6-carbomethyl biphenyl isolated from shilajit. Phytother Res. 1988;2:187-91.

Ghosal, S., 1993. Shilajit: Its origin and vital significance. In: Mukherjee, B. (Ed.), Traditional Medicine. Oxford – IBH, New Delhi, pp. 308–319.

Ghosal, S., Reddy, J.P., Lal, V.K., 1976. Shilajit I: chemical constituents. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science 65, 772–773.

Gondar, D., Lopez, R., Fiol, S., Antelo, J.M., Arce, F., 2005. Characterization and acid–base properties of fulvic and humic acids. Geoderma 126, 367–374.

Hockaday, W.C., Grannas, A.M., Hatcher, P.G., 2005. Interactions between black carbon and natural organic matter: influence on the sorptive uptake of pyrene by forest soil. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society 229, U886.

Jaiswal AK, Bhattacharya SK. Effects of Shilajit on memory, anxiety and brain monoamines in rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 1992; 24:12 – 17.

Kim, S., Kramer, R.W., Hatcher, P.G., 2003. Graphical method for analysis of ultrahigh-resolution broadband mass spectra of natural organic matter, the van Krevelen diagram. Analytical Chemistry 75, 5336–5344.

Koch, B.P., Dittmar, T., 2006. From mass to structure: an aromaticity index for high-resolution mass data of natural organic matter. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 20, 926–932.

Koch, B.P., Witt, M., Engbrodt, R., Dittmar, T., Kattner, G., 2005. Molecular formulae of marine and terrigenous dissolved organic matter detected by electrospray ionisation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 69, 3299–3308.

Koch, B.P., Witt, M., Kattner, G., Dittmar, T., 2007. Fundamentals of molecular formula assignment to ultrahigh resolution mass data of natural organic matter. Analytical Chemistry 79, 1758–1763.

Kramer, R.W., Kujawinski, E.B., Hatcher, P.G., 2004. Identification of black carbon derived structures in a volcanic ash soil humic acid by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Environmental Science & Technology 38, 3387–3395.

Kujawinski, E.B., Freitas, M.A., Zang, X., Hatcher, P.G., Green-Church, K.B., Jones, R.B., 2002. The application of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) to the structural characterization of natural organic matter. Organic Geochemistry 33, 171–180.

Martin, F., 1975. Humic acids from lignite. 1. Analytical characteristics and thermaldegradation. Fuel 54, 236–240.

Schepetkin, I.A., Khlebnikov, A.I., Kwon, B.S., 2002. Medical drugs from humus matter: focus on mumie. Drug Development Research 57, 140–159.

Characterization and biological activities of humic substances from mumie. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 51, 5245–5254.

Schliebs R, Liebmann A, Bhattacharya SK, Kumar A, Ghosal S, Bigl V. Systemic administration of defined extracts from Withania somnifera (Indian Ginseng) and Shilajit differentially affects cholinergic but not glutamatergic and GABAergic markers in rat brain. Neurochem Int. 1997 Feb; 30(2):181-90.

Schnitzer, M., 1972. Chemical, spectroscopic and thermal methods for the classification and characterization of humic substances. In: Proceedings International Meeting Humic Substances, Nieuwersluis, Wageningen, pp. 293–307.

Senesi, N., Miano, T.M., Provenzano, M.R., Brunetti, G., 1989. Spectroscopic and compositional comparative characterization of i.h.s.s. reference and standard fulvic and humic acids of various origin. The Science of the Total Environment 81/82,143–156.

Stenson, A.C., Marshall, A.G., Cooper, W.T., 2003. Exact masses and chemical formulas of individual Suwannee River fulvic acids from ultrahigh resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectra. Analytical Chemistry 75, 1275–1284.

Stevenson, F.J., Goh, K.M., 1971. Infrared spectra of humic acids and related substances. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 35, 471–483.

Tan, K.H., Giddens, J.E., 1972. Molecular weights and spectral characteristics of humic and fulvic acids. Geoderma 8, 221–229.

Tiwari P, Ramarao P, Ghosal S. Effects of Shilajit on the development of tolerance to morphine in mice. Phytother Res. 2001 Mar; 15(2): 177-9.

Ziechmann, W., 1964. Spectroscopic investigations of lignin, humic substances and peat. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 28, 1555–1566.

For More Information Read; Shilajit in Perspective


Shilajit in Perspective is a modern multi-disciplinary approach to a well known but highly debated rejuvenator (rasayana) of traditional Hindu ayurvedic medicine. Ghosal and coworkers have relentlessly investigated the chemistry and bioactivities of shilajit since the early seventies. Detailed research shows that shilajit contains two unique compounds viz. DCPs (dibenzo-a pyrone chromopproteins) and their key nuclear components DBPs (dibenzo-a pyrones). Shilajit is a paleohumus with marine invertebrate fossils being the major contributors. These are important to maintain the health status of man. The importance of DCPs/DBPs in energy synthesis (ATP) has been highlighted along with the claim that it is a potent immunomodulator and antioxidant. A carefully researched book containing a large spectrum of modern scientific methods of isolation, purification and standardization of a strongly potent organo-mineral drug which is a must read for all researchers and scientists in the field of natural products.